Askia Mborta is waiting for her wages. Like the other three dozen men and women sitting with her under the shade of the trees at the edge of her village of Adukram, she works in a government job creation scheme.The cashier from the Kuwamuman Rural Bank has come down the dusty, reddish road from the district town in a small, armoured off-roader. He has brought a card reader which includes a fingerprint scanner, laying it down on a wooden bench and connecting it to a generator.
When Mborta’s turn comes, she sits down on the bench in front of the cashier. He checks over a list to see what she is due in wages. Mborta then inserts her cash card with the e-zwich logo into the device’s slot and places a finger onto the scanner. This is how the mother of four identifies herself as a legitimate wage earner, as her card’s chip has the prints of all ten of her fingers saved. Mborta asks for cedi (the Ghanaian currency) and a receipt from the cashier. She could also simply load her wages onto the card.
Archie Hesse would have been pleased with how the payday went in this community of mud hut homes. The chief executive offficer of Ghana Interbank Payment and Settlement Systems Limited (GhIPSS) sits in his office in the Ghanaian capital of Accra, five hours’ drive south of Adukram, explaining the e-zwich system with the slogan “easy banking for everyone”.
At root, banking in Ghana is by no means an easy undertaking; even less so in rural areas. There are only 140 independent rural banks around the country. Two-thirds of all districts have an institution like this with just a few branches. The process for transactions is laborious and wages are often paid with a cheque that can only be cashed at a particular bank. Cash is in great demand. But that is a problem, according to Archie Hesse, who explains that the large amount of cash in hand misses out on circulation in the financial system.
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The cashier from the local bank uses e-zwich to pay government social grants to farmers in the village of Adukram.
People at the central bank subsidiary GhIPSS came to the conclusion that they needed a payment system that would be fraud-proof, easy to use and workable to implement at all financial institutions. On top of that, it had to be capable of supporting illiterate users. This resulted in e-zwich being rolled out ten years ago e-zwich being rolled out ten years ago; zwich as in switch, but with a smoother pronunciation. The cardholder does not need an account – many indigent people in rural areas still do not have one. The card is the only thing necessary to pay in and take out money.
The idea sounds obvious, but nevertheless, e-zwich’s development was long-drawn-out. Customers and interested banks were lacking. Subsequently, in 2012, a package to support e-zwich was agreed between Ghana and Germany. The implementing organisation on the German side would be KfW, which considered the project fundamentally worthy of support, though this did “demand a certain volume of transactions to be able to sustainably establish e-zwich in the market,” as project manager Jana Reinheimer from KfW Development Bank explains.
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For instance, the aim was for authorities to pay wages via e-zwich. “For banks, rolling out the system is associated with costs. e-zwich’s attractiveness for them only increases when this burden of costs pays off in the long term. The higher the e-zwich transaction volume, the higher receipts from fees are for banks,” Reinheimer states. The turnover processed through the cashless system has more than trebled since 2011.
KfW is making it easier for Ghanaian banks, including savings banks, to connect to e-zwich by offering them loans on favourable terms to buy hardware (cards, mobile card readers and cash points). KfW has provided seven million Euro from the funds of the German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) for this purpose, with half of this sum already claimed.
Repaid amounts can then be resupplied for further hardware purchases. In this process, KfW Development Bank pays particular attention to the social impact of e-zwich. “The poor rural population is our target group,” says Reinheimer. Robert E. Austin, National Coordinator of the Ghana Social Opportunities Project (GSOP), also works to improve their plight. Poverty, Austin says, is always the consequence of a lack of access to education, hospitals and financial institutions.
The programmes run by GSOP are funded by the World Bank. In addressing the question of how to get the money to the poorest people, GSOP opted for e-zwich. The security of the biometric system gave it the edge over its competition, Austin reports, as did the advantage of transactions also being possible offline (they are cleared when the terminal is back online). Systems that specifically demand stable internet access do not go far in Ghana’s impoverished northern regions.
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Around 40,000 people in the 60 poorest districts of the country take part in the GSOP job creation scheme, which also entitles Askia Mborta to a wage of 8 cedi equivalent of 1.60 Euro) per day. For instance, these workers improve roads or revegetate derelict farmland. Men and women receive equal pay for equal work. “We pay small sums to many, many people in the country,” Austin says. The people would previously have waited six months for their money; today with e-zwich, they have it within four weeks. In addition, only those who earned the money are able to collect it.
By comparing data of e-zwich cardholders with data from payrolls, the National Service Scheme (NSS) alone found 35,000 “ghost names” among its files. The NSS is a mandatory national service programme in which all Ghanaians over the age of 18 must do a year of community work, whether in agriculture, education or healthcare. For this, they receive 350 cedi equivalent to around 74 Euro) a month.
When the NSS switched all payments over to e-zwich with biometric data, it emerged that around half of the payees were fraudsters who had simply added a second or third NSS name. After the data were purged, “the government saved 12 million cedi every month,” Archie Hesse reports. e-zwich also makes it possible to fight the widespread corruption.
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Askia Mborta is pleased with the e-zwich system. The card saves her a long trip to town to collect her pay, leaving more time for her four children. © KfW
In some cases, such as that of worker Askia Mborta, the bank comes to the customer with e-zwich, though naturally it can also work the other way around. Cash points with fingerprint scanners are needed to be able to use the system outside of bank opening times. Thirty-four units, each costing around 24,000 Euro, have been purchased to date with the aid of KfW loans. The Rural Bank in the district capital of Wenchi has acquired four of these just for its own institution, which is seven hours’ drive north of Accra and provides 5,000 customers with the e-zwich card.
Bank director Yaw Odame explains why the biometric system is superior to the PIN process of other cash cards: “We have many customers with low levels of school education who are not too strong when dealing with numbers.” With e-zwich, however, poor people can also become account holders, as the revenues generated with the card provide indication of a customer’s creditworthiness, which is a pre-requisite for opening an account.
Askia Mborta has been a participant in the e-zwich system for a year. The small piece of plastic is a type of digital connection to living environments that are far removed from her own. Six mornings a week, she plants acacias on the bank of the nearby river along with her fellow villagers. She receives 224 cedi a month from GSOP for this. “The money helps my four children,” she says with a smile. Thanks to the card, she does not need to make the arduous journey to town to obtain the money.
Fifty-eight percent of website visits came from a mobile device in 2018, surpassing desktop usage for the fourth consecutive year. Mobile devices also accounted for 42 percent of total time spent online. It no longer is a question of whether your company needs a mobile app development strategy – because you undoubtedly do – but whether a mobile app or a responsive mobile website will serve your business better.
At face value, mobile websites and apps can look very similar; however, they are two very different mobile mediums. Deciding which medium serves your needs best depends on several factors, including target audiences, budget, and intent. To make it easier for you to determine where you need to focus your efforts, we’ve broken down how each option impacts the user experience.
Native mobile apps are for specific platforms, like iOS or Android. A user downloads and installs mobile apps on their device, and generally, native apps offer a faster and more responsive experience compared to mobile websites.
Impacts on User Experience
More Interactive Ways for the User to Engage
A mobile app allows you to offer your current clients/users added value through a new channel for engagement. Rather than looking at the same text and images as a website, apps can integrate features which allow users to interact with specific components of the app. For example, Instagram users can view images on the website, but can’t upload them without the app.
Mobile apps allow users to set up their preferences as soon as the app is downloaded, and customize it to suit their needs. Apps can also track user engagement, and use it to offer custom recommendations and updates, making the app more useful to the user. Apps also allow businesses to send tailored communication to users based on their interests, location, usage behavior, and more. According to Localytics sending customized or “dynamic” notifications to users had a positive impact on engagement, open-rate, and conversion rate. Customization allows the user to get the most out of the app
Ability to Work Offline
Mobile apps can run without an internet connection. Although many apps require internet connectivity to perform most of their tasks, they can still offer content and functionality to users while in offline mode. With this advantage, users can access information anytime, anywhere.
Mobile apps generally offer users a more intuitive user interface, making it easy to complete tasks. This unique interface environment enables users to become more immersed in the mobile experience. Users of specific operating systems have also become accustomed to certain functionalities and characteristics, developing an app for particular platforms offers users the functionality they expect. Responsive websites can’t always guarantee a standard of functionality users prefer.
Leverage Device Capabilities
Mobile apps can access and use built-in device features such as the camera, GPS, and location. Leveraging device capabilities leads to an enhanced, more convenient user experience. For example, the ability to use GPS and location data automatically, allows retail apps to send users flyers with specials specific to their area.
Responsive mobile websites are websites that can accommodate different screen sizes. Essentially, a responsive website is a customized version of a regular website that is used specifically for mobile.
Impacts on User Experience
Available for all users
Unlike mobile apps which only function on specific platforms (iOS or Android), a responsive website can be accessed from any mobile device regardless of the operating system, as long as an internet connection is available. However, it is essential to remember that network access, quality, and speed are all factors that will impact the mobile web experience. Responsive websites also don’t need to be downloaded or installed and are entirely free unlike some apps available in app stores.
Users don’t have to update
Again, unlike mobile apps, users won’t have to spend time installing new versions and updates of your product to experience improvements on the website. Because websites are easy to update, fix bugs and support, users most likely won’t even notice the update process and will be able to jump right into enjoying an enhanced experience.
Cost-effectiveness is more of a benefit for business rather than an impact on user experience; however, depending on complexity, a responsive mobile site can be more cost-effective than mobile app development. Cost is an important factor to consider, especially if you want your app to have a presence on more than one platform.
Which Is The Better Option?
Statistically speaking, the numbers do favor mobile apps. A report from Newzoo revealed that in 2018 the mobile app industry generated 92.1 billion in global app revenue. The same report forecasts that by 2021 app revenue will increase by over 50 percent to 139.6 billion.
With time spent on mobile increasing, smartphone users increasing to 3.8 billion globally by 2021, and first-time app downloads reaching over 100 billion in 2018, there is even more incentive for businesses to develop an app service.
However, the right choice depends on your business objectives. If your goal is to offer mobile-friendly content to a wide range of people, then a mobile website is probably the way to go. However, if you want to engage better, interact with, and communicate with your customers to drive customer loyalty, a mobile app presents itself as a better option.
In many cases, you may decide you need both a mobile website and a mobile app. If done correctly, both can be a strategic and valuable choice. So when it comes to your brand’s mobile strategy, it’s not a question of a mobile website or an app, but perhaps a two-pronged approach.
6 Reasons Why You Should Sell Online and Open Your eCommerce Store
Here’s why starting an Online Store is important, especially now.
Everywhere you go today you hear about online shopping, eCommerce and even virtual wallets on mobile phones. Despite all the talk, there are too many brands out there who are missing out on the opportunity. You might think to yourself: “well, I love buying online but – how does it apply to my industry?“.
You’d be surprised to find out that eCommerce can be applied to any product/service out there. Even a doctor can use it to offer online pre-paid bookings for consults and procedures. The following insights should help you better understand the benefits of selling online:
1. Your Customers Pay Upfront
In the online world people are accustomed to paying for goods and services upfront. Think of when you are buying a book, a movie, a new pair of headphones or even your TV. How does the process go? First you find what you like, you add it to your cart, enter your shipping and payment details and complete the order. Then you patiently wait for your stuff to arrive.
If it is done for everything else, why shouldn’t it be the same for the products you offer?
2. Your Prices Are Set, Forget Bargaining Customers
There is an interesting shift in paradigm that has occurred with online shopping: We accept the prices for what they are. There is a subconscious process that convinces people that published prices are fixed. Going back to our previous exercise – Do you ever try to negotiate the price on that blender you are buying? No, you don’t. What you will likely do is search for coupons online or wait for the next available sale date.
This is a common practice with all the big retailers and they have been taking advantage of this for years. Why should you be any different?
3. Your Catalog is Always Up to Date
One exciting (and cost reducing) benefit of an online store is the fact that you do not need to print any more catalogs. Printing is costly and is quickly outdated. Think of all the times you had to re-print your catalogs because of an item number change, or lost customers because the wrong prices were printed on the catalog. When you modify pricing, descriptions, availability or any other attributes in your online store, it automatically updates all the pages relating to each product for you.
Why print out heavy outdated books and waste money on postage sending them out to customers? Simply send them your link and they will be able to browse everything from home or even their mobile phones.
4. You Can Reach Customers Around The World
The Internet sees no geographical boundaries. You can have customers from across the country or outside the continent. This exponential rise in potential customers opens your business to a whole new level. You can now decide to market as specifically as you want without limiting yourself to the people in physical proximity to you.
Many people say: “Well the problem with my industry is that there are only a counted number of potential customers because we are very specific”. Forget about those limiting beliefs and accept the fact that the World is larger than you can possibly imagine.
5. You Are Open 24/7, Even While You Sleep
Nine to five, Ten to six, lunch breaks… Your clients have jobs too, right? So when do they find the time to visit your business? An online store removes these time barriers because they can now shop wherever they are at whatever time they please. You can be sound asleep in your bed and still have orders coming in, being processed and will be ready for you to ship out when you wake up.
Sound good? Well it is.
6. Online Marketing Can Convert Customers Directly
The beauty of online marketing vs traditional media is that it can be measured and optimized. When you have an eCommerce website, you can tailor your ads to close a sale. Specifics steps (called a funnel) are setup for customers to follow and you can track their interactions from the moment they clicked on an ad to the second they placed an order. No more guesswork, market by numbers.
Ready to start selling? Talk to Nrama about setting up your eccomerce shop